5 KEGEL EXERCISE MISTAKES YOU ARE PROBABLY MAKING
BY ANDREW SIEGEL, MD
Dr. Arnold Kegel (1894-1981), a gynecologist who taught at USC School of Medicine, popularized pelvic floor muscle exercises to improve the sexual and urinary health of women following childbirth. His legacy is the pelvic exercise that bears his name—Kegels.
“Do your Kegels” is common advice from many a gynecologist (and from well-intentioned friends and family), particularly after a difficult childbirth has caused problems “down there.” These pelvic issues include urinary leakage, drooping bladder, and stretching of the vagina such that things look and feel different and sex is just not the same.
“Do your Kegels” is sensible advice since this strengthens the pelvic floor muscles that support the pelvic organs, contribute to urinary and bowel control, and are intimately involved with sexual function. Developing strong and durable pelvic floor muscles is capable of improving, if not curing, these pelvic issues. Unfortunately, mastery of the pelvic floor is not as easy as it sounds because these muscles are internal and hidden and most often used subconsciously (unlike the external glamour muscles that are external and visible and used consciously).
The Kegel problem is threefold:
- Many women do not know how to do a proper Kegel contraction.
- Of those that can do a proper Kegel contraction, most do not pursue a Kegel exercise training program.
- Even those women who do know how to do a proper Kegel contraction and pursue a Kegel exercise training program are rarely, if ever, taught the most important aspect of pelvic muscle proficiency: how to put the Kegels to practical use in real-life situations (“Kegels-on-demand”).
If a Kegel pelvic floor contraction is done incorrectly, not only will the pelvic issue not be helped, but actually could made worse. Only doing pelvic muscle contractions without pursuing a well-designed pelvic floor muscle training program is often an invitation to failure. Finally, if “Kegels-on-demand” to improve pelvic issues are not taught, it is virtually pointless to learn a proper contraction and complete a program, since the ultimate goal is the integration of Kegels into one’s daily life to improve quality.
How does one do a proper Kegel pelvic contraction? Simply stated, a Kegel is an isolated contraction of the pelvic floor muscles that draw in and lift the perineum (the region between vagina and anus). The feeling should be of this anatomical sector moving “up” and “in.”
5 Common Kegel Exercise Mistakes
Mistake # 1: Holding Your Breath
Breathe normally. The Kegel muscles are the floor of the core group of muscles, a barrel of central muscles that consist of the diaphragm on top, the pelvic floor on the bottom, the abds in front and on the sides, and the spinal muscles in the back. Holding your breath pushes the diaphragm muscle down and increases intra-abdominal pressure, which pushes the pelvic floor muscles down, just the opposite direction you want them moving.
Mistake # 2: Contracting the Wrong Muscles
When I ask patients to squeeze their pelvic floor muscles during a pelvic exam, they often contract the wrong muscles, usually the abdominals, buttocks or thigh muscles. Tightening up the glutes is not a Kegel! Others squeeze their legs together, contracting their thigh muscles. Still others lift their butts in the air, a yoga and Pilates position called “bridge.” The worst mistake is straining and pushing down as if moving one’s bowels, just the opposite of a Kegel which should cause an inward and upward lift.
Fact: I have found that even health care personnel—those “in the know,” including physical therapists, personal trainers and nurses—have difficulty becoming adept at doing Kegels.
Sadly, there is a device on the market (see below) called the “Kegel Pelvic Muscle Thigh Exerciser,” a Y-shaped plastic device that fits between your inner thighs such that when you squeeze your thighs together, the gadget squeezes closed. This exerciser has NOTHING to do with pelvic floor muscles (as it strengthens the adductor muscles of the thigh), serving only to reinforce doing the wrong exercise and it is shameful that the manufacturer mentions the terms “Kegel” and “pelvic muscle” in the description of this product.
Learning to master one’s pelvic floor muscles requires an education on the details and specifics of the pelvic floor muscles, learning the proper techniques of conditioning them and finally, the practical application of the exercises to one’s specific issues.
Mistake # 3: Not Using a Kegel Program
Kegel exercises can potentially address many different pelvic problems—pelvic organ prolapse, sexual issues, stress urinary incontinence, overactive bladder/bowel, and pelvic pain due to excessive pelvic muscle tension. Each of these issues has unique pelvic floor muscle shortcomings. Doing casual pelvic exercises does not compare to a program, which is a home-based, progressive, strength, power and endurance training regimen that is designed, tailored and customized for the specific pelvic floor problem at hand. Only by engaging in such a program will one be enabled to master pelvic fitness and optimize pelvic support and sexual, urinary and bowel function.
Mistake # 4: Impatience
Transformation does not occur overnight! Like other exercise programs, Kegels are a “slow fix.” In our instant gratification world, many are not motivated or enthused about slow fixes and the investment of time and effort required of an exercise program, which lacks the sizzle and quick fix of pharmaceuticals or surgery. Realistically, it can take 6 weeks or more before you notice improvement, and after you do notice improvement, a “maintenance” Kegel training regimen needs to be continued (use it or lose it!)
Mistake # 5: Not Training for Function (“Kegels-on-Demand”)
Sadly, most women who pursue pelvic training do not understand how to put their newfound knowledge and skills to real life use. The ultimate goal of Kegels is achieving functional pelvic fitness, applying one’s pelvic proficiency to daily tasks and common everyday activities so as to improve one’s quality of life. It is vital, of course, to begin with static and isolated, “out of context” exercises, but eventually one needs to learn to integrate the exercises on an on-demand basis (putting them in to “context”) so as to improve leakage, bladder and pelvic organ descent, sexual function, etc.
Bottom Line: Kegel pelvic floor muscle exercises are a vastly under-exploited and misunderstood resource, despite great potential benefits of conditioning these small muscles. In addition to improving a variety of pelvic issues (urinary and bowel leakage, sexual issues, dropped bladder, etc.), a strong and fit pelvic floor helps one prepare for pregnancy, childbirth, aging and high impact sports. The Kegel Fix book is a wonderful resource that teaches the reader how to do proper Kegels, provides specific programs for each unique pelvic issue, and reveals the specifics of “Kegels-on-demand,” how to put one’s fit pelvic floor and contraction proficiency to practical use in the real world.
Dr. Andrew Siegel is a physician and urological surgeon who is board-certified in urology as well as in female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery. He is an Assistant Clinical Professor of Surgery at the Rutgers-New Jersey Medical School and is a Castle Connolly Top Doctor New York Metro Area, Inside Jersey Top Doctor and Inside Jersey Top Doctor for Women’s Health. His mission is to “bridge the gap” between the public and the medical community.